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Carriage Avenue was renamed Oakland Street in 1909
Amesburys Industries from 1870's-1950'sThese are industries that were once part of the industrial community that were essential to the prosperity of Amesbury and to the nation, but now, all are almost forgotten and information is very limited if at all.
Amesbury and Newburyport Trolley Lines
Trolley Car Builders
These pages contain what I have found and it is not infallible. All comments and corrections are welcomed. Royal Feltner
Text and photographs on this page have been copied and edited by me from several archived internet magazines and internet sites. One of these was Historic Photos of Newbury. Also a great deal was taken from several O.R. Cummings books that I own. William Ellis, great-grandson of the founder of Ellis Car Co., is contributing to this page.
Amesbury and Newburyport have been closely connected from the earliest days of the settlements and the earliest street railroads were between the two towns with horse drawn cars. Newburyport Car Company, in 1886, was the first to build cars for the its line to Amesbury. Ellis Car Co. started in 1889 and Briggs Car Co. followed in 1890. Both of these were in Amesbury. All three companies had cars running on the same lines and built cars for other railways throughout the country.
The railways that are featured here encompassses the Merrimac Valley and the towns of Exeter and Hampton New Hampshire that had connections to Amesbury. They were very small and connected to each other so as to complete longer lines. The Plum Island Railway ran from one end Northern Boulevard to end of Southern Boulevard, Black Rock and Salisbury Beach Railway first ran from Black Rock on the southern end to the Seabrook Line on the northern end. Later it was extended to the Hampton River; The Newburyport & Amesbury Railway ran from the center of Plum Island to Market Square in Amesbury via the Chain Bridge and Main Street with a line from Amesbury to Merrimac via River Road to Merrimacport and on to Merrimac Center. Exeter, Hampton, and Amesbury Railway was from Exeter to Hampton Beach Casino with a line from Smithtown in Seabrook to Market Square in Amesbury. All of these became a part of the history of trolley cars in Amesbury.
There were five trolley railways plus the B. M. Railroad, connected to Amesbury: Newburyport and Amesbury, Haverhill and Amesbury; Hampton and Amesbury, Haverhill, Plaistow, and Newton, and Exeter, Hampton, & Amesbury. This is the reason why it was called THE HUB.
All trolley travelers West and North of Amesbury wanting to travel to the Seacoast had to come through Amesbury. If one wanted to travel from Concord, NH to the seacoast region, he had a 110 mile, seven-hour trip to Portsmouth. He would go through Manchester, Derry, Pehlam, Salem, Lawrence, Haverhill, Amesbury, Seabrook, Hampton, and finally Portsmouth. There were many articles in magazines of the period that were written about going through Amesbury and how beautiful the country side and the rolling hills were. One article told about passing the beautiful Kenoza Lake, having the conductor stopping at Whittier's birthplace to let the passengers get a good look at it, how the rolling hills and meadows passed by the nearby Lake Atittash and the summer resort there that was for Amesbury residents, and finally about Whittier's home and the Friend's Meeting House.
Another one was about the spectacular Chain Bridge from Amesbury to Newburyport. The Exeter, Hampton, and Amesbury Rail Way was built to Amesbury because it was considered the hub and four thousand workers there would be able to visit the beach and the casino. The reason that the store owners were overjoyed about the Haverhill and Amesbury Rail Way was that the people in Amesbury would come to Haverhill to shop and the rumor was that free tickets were offered to any shopper. If one wanted to travel from Newburyport to Salisbury Beach, he had two choices; the wisest one was to go through Amesbury to Salisbury Beach; the other was to take a trolley to the middle of the bridge on Bridge Street and wait for a Haverhill and Amesbury car to pick him up. Going home by this route was not very wise either because the trolley would stop in the middle of the bridge and let him off to fend for himself.
The Haverhill and Amesbury cars initial stop was at Sparkhawk and Main Street, but later the city selectmen gave the line permssion to extend tracks to Market Square. The hitch there was that the Newburyport and Amesbury company already had tracks and the new lines had to be built beside them. This caused the town many headaches in the winter months with snow plowing. Whichever one got there first would plow the snow on the other's line and fights between the workers would would start. Finally, the two shared the same line from Sparhawk to Market Square. Also, Monument Square in Haverhill was the final stop and one had to manage to get home on his own from there. However, the trolleys were the fastest and most enjoyable way to go. Many families would pack a picnic basket for a trip, enjoy the cool breeze and scenery, and bask in the sun on a beach and enjoy a wonderful time together.
Most of the lines prospered in the early days until the enthusiasm wore off. This began to happen around 1905 and many of the smaller lines were purchased by larger companies or declared bankruptcy. The 1903 Amesbury carriage workers strike was devastating to the town because most of the small carriage makers did not survive and hundreds of trolley car users were laid off. Briggs Car Co shut down because of the strike. Ellis Car Company was destroyed by a fire in 1894 and did not rebuild. Trolley rail service continued through Amesbury until 1921.
Rail Way Lines
Newburyport and Amesbury Horse Railway Co.
A charter was given in 1864 for the building of the Newburyport and Amesbury Horse Railroad, but plans for the construction were not made until 1871. It took two years to raise the money to start construction. The road would start in Market Square in Newburyport and go down Merrimac Street and across the Chain Bridge onto Main Street, Amesbury and then proceed to Market Square. Market Square was at that time in Salisbury.
Its ten-year lease was to expire in 1883 and dissatisfied coustomers demanded that a new lessor be founded.. Mr. E. P. Shaw, owner of the steamboats that were used on the Merrimac River, wound up with the lease. He also owned the Black Rocks and Salisbury Beach Horse Railway Co. During his short time with the company, more cars and equipment wre purchased and the line rally prospered.
Ellis Car at the car house just before electrification
It was decided in 1889 to experiment with electrification of the horse drawn railways, The Amesbury-Merrimac line was chosen and the direct current generator furnished by Thomas-Huston Electric Co, Lynn, MA, was installed in the steam planrt of the Amesbury Electric Co. on Oak Street. Wires were strung from Market Square to Merrimac by way of River Road through Merrimacport on to Merrimac center. Two single truck closed cars, No. 32 and 34, built by the newly formed Ellis Car Co., were purchased for this experiment. Car No. 32 left for Merrimac around midnight on October 14. A short circuit in one of the motors had to be repaired at Market Square. It made the round trip without any more troubles. Car No. 34 was delivered the next day and it ran withount any troubles. The first scheduled run was made on October 18 and the time round trip time was 90 minutes. Only one car was used regularly with the other being held in reserve. These cars were the first electrified cars to be used in the seacoast region. This was the first major extension to the line. The company changed it name to the Newburyport and Amesbury Street Railway.
Ellis Car No. 32 , 12-bench closed, The first electric car to run in the Seacost Region
In 1889, a major line was made from Amesbury to Merrimac via Merrimac Street along the river to Merrimacport and on into Merrimac Center. Later, there were two other extensions. One was started at State Street and ran down Pleasant Street and several other streets to High Street, turned right and continued by Three Roads to Low Street.at what was then known as Newburyport Plains. The electricication was begun on the entire line in 1890. The power plant was built at Jefferson and Merrimac Streets. The first car left the garage for Amesbury but broke down at the Powow River and had to be towed back by horses. New cars were purchased from Ellis Car Co. and in early 1891 the line was finished and cars began to run from Market Square, Newburyport to Market Square in Amesbury. That June, a fire destroyed the Car house with a large number cars and equipment completely destroyed. Replacements were leased or bought ftom the West End Railway, Boston, and immediately were placed in service.
The other route ran up State Street and turned left toward Newbury at High Street and ended at the town line. Later it was extended to Little's Lane in 1890 and extended further to the Parker River in 1891 The first run was on July 4th
The first car to make the trip from Newburyport to the Parker River, Newbury. on July 4th. 1891 and still had the Grove Hall name. Grove Hall was in Roxbury, Shortly before this, a fire had destroyed the car barn with all of the rolling stock and replacements had to be purchased from the Westend Railway MA. It was made by the Jones Car Co.
Due to flooding of the Merrimack River and for lack of funds to repair the bed of the track, Ellis car No. 32 on February 5 1892, left the track and went into the river.
With the purchase of the open cars from the West End Railway, closed cars were purchased from Ellis Car Co. in Amesbury. Before the fire, all the cars used by the company had been purchased from Ellis. It was not until 1894 that Newburyport cars were used. This was done because Ellis Car Co. was totally destroyed by a fire that year. Ellis decided not to build any more cars. They purchased the building at 99 Friend Street that was formerly used by the Briggs Carriage Co. Ellis continued in his carriage and wagon business.
Two six-sash Ellis cars at Market Square
In 1892, the company owned 13 sixteen feet closed cars with either five or six drop sash windows on each side that could carry twenty-two passengers. It also owned 7 open eight bench, seating forty-two passengers. There were four electric and one horse-drawn snow plows.
Car No. 31, open bench at the car station in Amesbury In 1897, the company got the rights to extend its line down Water Street and the Plum Island Turnpike, a toll road and toll bridge that was leased to them, to the center and to the light house. This new portion was named the Plum Island Electric Street Railway. Eight 10-bench open cars were bought from the Newburyport Car Co. Power was furnished by the Newburyport and Amesbury Power Co. and were given the rights to drive to Market Square. From 1905 on the railway lost more money than colected and ran into hard times. Without any money to pay for repairs, the tracks and cars could not be repaired. Notes were being unpaid and refinancing was not available. In September of 1898 the payment on bond was not paid and the bank filed suit again them for non payment. A receiver was appointed and auctioned of the railway line and all merchandise. E.P. Shaw and a syndicate bought the Newburyport and Amesbury Railway Co, lock, stock, and barrel for $190.000. The next day it became the Citizens Electric Street Railway. Their first priority was to rebuild the system in its entirety with new tracks and wiring. The Haverhill and Amesbury Railway assisted them in redoing the tracks in Market Square, Newburyport and ran double lines in Amesbury from Huntington Square to Market Square. In the meantime, Shaw purchased the Plum Island Electric Street Railway. The Plum Island line and the Citizens line merge and kept the Citizens' name. Citizens" now had five lines; Newburyport to Amesbury, Newburyport to Plum Island, Newburyport to Parker River, Newburyport Hight Street, and Amesbury to Merrimac. Because Shaw was also the owner of the Newburyport Car Co., these cars were used. A fire destroyed the car house at Break O'Day Hill with twenty five cars in 1904. A new car house was built on Merrimac Street that in later years was used by the Coca Cola Bottling Co.
The new car house
Sea Side Railroad Co.
In 1879, Enoch Northend operated a two-mile long horse drawn railroad from Black Rocks wharf on the mouth of the Merrimac River to the center of Salisbury Beach that was used only in the summer months. The Merrimac Valley Steamboat Company, owned by E.P. Shaw of Newburyport, would carry passengers to visit to the hotels and cottages that were being constructed along the beach. The car barn and horse stables were located at Black Rocks. He sold his interest to Shaw in 1883. Shaw immediately organized the Black Rocks and Salisbury Beach Railway.
These two pictures depict just how busy the river traffic was to and from Black Rocks
Black Rock & Salisbury Beach Railway
Because of the growth of the beach area, the line was extended to Salisbury center in 1888. A year later, lines were extended to Newburyort and to Market Square in Amesbury. In 1890, two steam dummies, an engine that pulled several cars, were purchased for beach usage because conditions on the beaches took a heavy toll on horses. In 1891, the line was electrified to the beach, but it was returned to horse drawn. It was again electrified in 1892 when the Haverhill and Amesbury Railway Co. purchased this portion of the route. The horse drawn line to Black Rocks was never electrified. The dummy Jetty was purchased from Plum Island Railway in 1898.
Trolleys at Salisbury Beach
In 1888 the trolley line was extended to the New Hampshire line at Seabrook Beach. Another company named the New Hampshire Black Rocks Railway was built a line from Salisbury to Hampton River. This line was also owned by Shaw. He now owned all the lines on the beaches from the Hampton River to the southern end of Plum Island and he also owned the steamers that brought passengers to these towns. Salisbury Beach and Plum Island had grown extensively in a short period of time with Salisbury Beach having over 600 houses was considered as a town.
Plum Island Railway
In 1886, E. P. Shaw, shortly after he gained stock control of the Neburyport & Amesbury Horse Rairoad, started construction of a horse trolley line on Plum Island. He also owned the Plum Island Turnpike and the bridge to Plum Island. The line would go from the hotel at the center of the island to a his steam boat landing on the Merimac Rivers so his steamboats could carry passengers to and from the hotel.
Service to and from Newburyport to Plum Island began in June of 1887 with one closed and nine open cars. This was a seasonal railway.
Copied from the 1888 Issue of the Street Car Revue Magazine
"The directors are making inquiries in regard to using dummy engines on the whole of their road next season. They are having flying horses and other attractions made for Plum island. A number of new houses are being erected there. They expect an increase in business over last year, although the directors will not complain if they receive as much as last year for a dividend7 per cent. These will be increased by steamboat facilities from Haverhill and up-river towns the coming summer, which will increase the street railway business at Newburyport and to the beach."
In April of 1898, Plum Island Electric Railway bought the Dummy Rail service and was granted permission to build the Plum Island rail line, a distance of four miles. Rail service between Newburyport and Plum Island was electrified in 1898 on Northern Boulevard and service began, but Southern Boulvard was never electrified. They bought eight 10-Bench opens from Newburyport Car Company and later a freight car. Service to Plum Island was seasonal. The Plum Island Electric Railway was a subsiderery of the Neburyport & Amesbury Rail Road Co. The Plum Island Line was profitable, but the Newburyport & Amesbury was not.
Copied from the 1890 Electrical World Magazine
The Plum Island Street Railway has been transferred to the Black Rocks & Salisbury Beach Street Railway Company. The consideration is $ 1.00 and the grantee engages to pay the debts of the grantor, amounting to $10,000, and pay $100 per share for the stock on demand. A mortgage has also been recorded from the Black Hocks & Salisbury Beach Street Railway Company to the International Trust Company for $103,000 to guarantee bonds to be issued to pay the debt of $10,000 of the Plum Island road and tho debt of the Black Rocks & Salisbury Beach Railway. The paid up capital stock of the latter road has been increased to $225,000.
10-bench open purchased from the Newburyport Car Co.in 1898.
The Plum Island Line was later electrified
Trolley Cars at Plum Island, Newbury, and Newburyport
Peoples Street Railway
The Peoples Street Railroad ran from Bailey's Lane in West Newbury to Low Street in Newburyport by way of what is now Rt. 113. It was organized by business men in Merrimac and West Newbury and was approved by the legistlature in 1892. The Haverhill and Groveland Horse Railway had a line from Haverhill through Groveland to Bailey's Lane. Lines were approved by Newburyport to run lines into Newburyport. In 1897, a syndicate by the president of the Newburyport and Amesbury Railway bought the Peoples Horseline Railray and and completey rebuilt the lines to electrify the route. Double vestibuled cars made by the Newburyport Car Co. were used on this line. He sold it to the the Lowell, Lawrence and Haverhill in 1898 and these two companies were merged using the parent company's name. By this time, the entire route from Newburyport to Lowell had electric cars.
1897 Newburyport Car at West Newbury Town Hall
Hampton and Amesbury
In 1898, permission was granted to extend the his line into Seabrook and connect it to the Haverhill and Amesbury Railway. By doing this, one could travel from Boston to Hampton Beach by trolley. Construction was completed in 1899 and Hampton and Amesbury Railway Co. was charted in 1899.
Hampton and Amesbury car at Smith's Station, Seabrook, NH
Exeter, Hampton, & Amesbury Railway
Wallace Lovell, owner of the Hampton and Exter Railway that had lines to his Casino on Hampton Beach, wanted to increase patronage at his casino. At his time, most of the wealthly people spent their vacations in the posh hotels and resorts in the north country. He reasoned that if he built a line to Amesbury that had thousands of low income families, they would gladly pay ten cents to get to the beach and the casino.
The railroad company began operation with five open and five closed 10-bench cars, all built by the Briggs Carriage Company. Amesbury was the hub for all of the trolley lines that went to Hampton Beach. This included the towns of Haverhill and Newburyport.
While the construction was being done, the state gave the Exeter and Hampton Company rights to extend the line to Hampton Beach Casino and to Hampton River. In 1899, all of the various lines were combined into the Exeter, Hampton, and Amesbury Street Railway. A new plan was to build his Amesbury line from Seabrook over the Salisbury Plains and into Market Square, Amesbury. All of this was completed by the middle of 1900.
The starting point was on Front Street in Exeter and would make a loop around the city and then went to Hampton and finally stopped at the casino in Hampton Beach. A line was built at the casino, south to the Hampton River and north to Boar's Head Point. At Hampton was a connection to Amesbury down RT. 1 through Smithtown in Seabrook. It turned West at the New Hampshire border and by way of Main Street in Salisbury and over the plains to Congress Street and down to Clinton Street. Here, It went North to Market Street, passing the carhouse and power station just north of the Back River, about where the R.and G. Mfg. is now located, and turned left on Market Street to Market Square. Here connections could be made with the Citizens Railway to Merrimac, Haverhill, and on to Canobie Lake in New Hampshire. A connection could be made at Smtithtown with the Newburport Railway to Market Square in Newburyport.
The Exeter, Hampton,& Amebury Railway now included 26.216 miles of track from Exeter to Hampton Beach and from Whittier's to Smithtown and on to Market Square in Amesbury. Since most of the line carried half-hourly traffic during the summer, the company ordered 15 new cars from Briggs to meet its passenger commitments. By the end of 1900, thec ompany had seven 20-foot closed cars, one Duplex convertible, 13 10-bench open cars, eight 14-bench open cars, a combination mail and baggage car, a freight car, four snowplows, and a number of work cars.
Evidently this did not set well with the Citizens Railway because it cut off revenue that it was getting from the passengers who had been traveling from Smithtown to Amesbury and beyond. A few years later, when the E. H. & A. wanted to use the Haverhill and Amesbury line to Haverhill it was not granted.
Hampton Beach Casino, 1898
Exeter, Hampton and Amesbury Railway Co. Powerhouse and Car Barn
(garage) on Clinton Street
The substation addition constructed at the Amesbury carhouse in 1901 was a one story brick affair, 33 by 50 feet in area, with a concrete floor and a wood roof supported on steel trusses, and was located on the east side of the barn. Both the carhouse and substation addition became the property of the Massachusetts Northeastern in 1913 and the carhouse was in regular use until 1923, the substation remaining in operation till 1930.
Haverhill and Amesbury Railway
Early in 1892, several Amesbury and Haverhill businessmen, including Charles Goss, L. J. Marston and W. G. Ellis, president of the Ellis Car Company of Amesbury, organized the Haverhill & Amesbury Street Railway Co. for the purpose of building an electric railway from Haverhill, through the thriving town of Merrimac to Amesbury, a distance of approximately 11 miles.
Merrimac Car house in 1892 with on the No. 39 Newburyport 10-bench open,
No. 38 Ellis 10-bench open , and No. 52 Newburyport
The starting point was Monument Square in Haverhill down Washington St. and continued by Kenoza Lake to its headquarters in Merrimac. From there, it traveled down East Main Street and what is now Haverhill Road and on to Hillside Avenue to its destination at Sparhawk and Main Street. The Newburyport and Amesbury Rail Way owned the tracks to Market Square. Later, the city gave the H & A line permission to build another set of tracks to Market Square. Market Square was the hub of all the lines coming into Amesbury. From Amesbury, it went down Elm Sttreet to Salisbury Center. Later, permission was given to have the line extended to Smithstown in Seabrook.
Laying the Tracks Near Whittier's Birthplace
H. & A. built a line down Elm Street to the center of Salisbury Beach. With several small lines in the region having rails into Haverhill could now have passengers traveling to Salisbury Beach. Every person in New Hampshire and Massachusetts had to come through Amesbury to Southern NH. A passenger wanting to travel from Concord, NH to Portsmouth had an eight hour ride of 110 miles and his travel ran through Manchester, Derry, Pehalm, Salem, Methuen, Haverhill, Amesbury, Seabrook, Hampton, and finally to Portsmouth. Several articles were written in the railway trade journals from passengers describing their trips and how much they enjoyed them. The most praise was given the to trip from Haverhill to Amesbury and how beautiful was the scenery.The first electric car over the Haverhill & Amesbury Street Railway ran from the Merrimac carhouse to Amesbury on Sept. 24, 1892. On Oct. 11 the line was completed to Monument Square, Haverhill, and in the evening of that day, officials of the town and invited guests rode from Haverhill to Amesbury. Regular service between Haverhill and Amesbury commenced on Oct 13th, and it is said that during the day, merchants of Haverhill paid the round trip fare of any Amesbury or Merrimac resident who came on the H. & A. to Haverhill to do his or her shopping.
Haverhill & Amesbury car at Salisbury BeachThe owners realized that their company was in trouble when in 1902, the Haverhill, Plaistow, and Newton Railroad Co. extended its line from Newton to Amesbury with bigger and better cars. This extension went from Newton down Amesbury Street passing Lake Attatish and arriving to Market Square via Lion's Mouth Road and Friend Street.
The Haverhill, Plaistow, and Newton cars were larger and more comfortable to ride and passengers much preferred this scenic route to Amesbury than the other way and this left the Haverhill & Amesbury almost riderless. No revenue was available for much needed repairs on their line and soon it became a derelict. In 1907, the MerrimacValley Electric Co. bought the line and in 1909, persuaded the stock holders to rebuild the line in its entirety with new rail lines and rolling stock. Ridership increased and was able to continue service. Even though it kept its original name, it was known as Eastern Route of the parent company. In 1913, it was absorbed by the Massachusetts Northern Street Railway and stayed in business until 1921.
Haverhill, Plaistow, and Newton Railway Co.
In 1901 The Hampton to Amesbury extended its lines to the Newton NH border on Kimbell Rd. Because of a conflicting interest between the Citizens company who owned the Haverhill, Georgetown, and West Newbury Railway and and a Haverhill to Amesbury existed, the only way he could get from Haverhill to Hampton was to build a new railway. Thus. the Haverhill, Plaistow, and Newton Rail was built. Louvell owned the casino at Canobe Lake and the casino at Hampton Beach. His original plans for his system was to convey passengers to these casinos. At his time, he owned the lines, Exeter, Hampton, & Amesbury and the railways from Canobie Lake extended into Haverhill. The Haverhill, Plaistow, & Newton Rail Way Co. was the finishing link.
A group of school teachers has just gotten off No. 73 at the Friend's Meeting House
The route had trackage rights from Monument Square, Haverhill up Primrose St., by way Dustin Square that turned left on Main St. to North Street. North Street was the begining of line It continued on to Plaistow Center over Sweets Hill and turned left at South Main St. in Newton. From there it continued on to Rowes Corner where a private road was built to Amesbury Road. At the New Hampshire border, Amesbury Road continues as Kimball Road down to Tuxbury Square, the junction of Kimball and Lions Mouth Road. A private road was made going by Tuxbury Pond to Newton Road in South Hampton, NH, This junction is named "Rings Corner" Newton Road goes East to Lions Mouth Road. From here, it had trackage with the Hampton and Amesbury Railway to Market Square.
This Laconia 14 Bench open is on Main St. Newton headed for Amesbury
Trolley Car Makers
Newburyport Car Co.
Newburyport Car at Market Square
Copied from the 1888 Issue of the Street Railway Revue Magazine
Newburyport Car Manufacturing Co. are receiving orders daily. Their new shop is nearly ready. They have some 75 open and close cars in different stages of construction, and they expect to finish 65 before June 1. Among these are two large cars, 70 passengers, 8 wheels, for the new road at Gloucester, Mass. This company intend to increase their plant as fast as possible, so that they may be able to keep a stock of standard open and closed cars on hand for immediate delivery. They have used the Bemis gear on all the cars they have built.Copied from the 1888 Issue of the Street Railway Revue Magazine
A little more than two years ago Messrs. Evans & Patriquin started the business of manufacturing street cars at Newburyport, Mass. Recently the company has been reorganized, with Mr. E. P. Shaw as president, while Mr. Evans remains as superintendent of the works. The buildings are comparatively new, of wood, two stories high, and arranged in an irregular manner under a bluff upon which the street runs, and you enter the office on the second story over a foot-bridge from the street. The main or setting-up shop is 116 x 62 feet, the paint shop 80x64 feet, and the machine shop 50x70 feet. Other buildings and sheds are used for storing cars and material. The shops are equipped with a creditable number of wood working machines, and there are transfer tables and other appliances common in this class of shop. Portable incandescent electric lights are provided for use on dark days, and for night work. These are so arranged that they can be placed inside the car, or in any position the workmen may desire. The business has outgrown its present quarters and new buildings will soon be erected. The Grinnel system of automatic sprinklers will also be put in.
Among the orders now being filled are seventeen cars for the West End Co., of Boston; four cars for Plymouth and four cars for the Thomson-Houston Electric Co. We noted that in the cars now being made for the West End Co. strips of wood running lengthwise of the car, about three-fourths of an inch wide and one-half inch thick, placed one-half inch apart, were screwed to the floor above an oil cloth lining. These strips are intended to take the place of the matting used on most street cars. The panels at the end of the seat on the open cars are made with a cast iron border, with a groove on the inner surface into which the thin wood of the panel is inserted. The cushions for the seats are filled with elastic felt, a preparation of cotton, and are known as the Ostermon cushion. The firm buy the blinds for their cars from the Briggs & Allyn Manufacturing Co., of Lawrence, Mass. Seventy-five men are employed in the works.
The business of building street cars is usually the outgrowth of coach or carriage building, but the employes of this firm are men who were formerly employed by the ship builders of Newburyport for doing the cabin work and other nice jobs incident to ship building. On account of the decline in ship building at the East these men have gravitated into car building, and make the very best of mechanics for this class of work.
An Annual Meeting Held.
The Massachusetts Street Railway Association held its annual meeting on Wednesday, September 4. This association is in the habit, as we have before stated in these columns, of holding monthly meetings, the attendance at which is confined to the members, with occasionally such friends as they may wish to invite, and at which a lunch is served and a degree of social intercourse is reached, through the frequent recurrence of the meetings, which would be unattainable otherwise. The representatives of the Journal, received an invitation to attend this meeting, but were reluctantly compelled by the pressure of business requiring attention at home to forego the pleasure. Instead of the usual place of meeting, the members assembled at Newburyport, Mass., and on the arrival of the ten o'clock train from Boston, took the steamer "E. P. Shaw" for a sail on the Merrimack River to Plum Island, where dinner was had at two P. M. Immediately following the dinner an election of officers for the ensuing year took place,at which Mr. Chas. Odell, of Salem, was elected president, and Mr. Jas. H. Eaton, of Lawrence, secretary
The first double truck built for the Manchester Street Railway, Manchester, NH, was this 15-bench type made by the Newburyport Mfg. Co in 1899
The Newburyport Car Mfg. Co. would seem to be enjoying a liberal patronage, if we may judge from the number of cars which they have lately shipped. Among these may be mentioned the following: Two to the Middletown Horse Railroad, Middletown, Ct.; ten to the Boston & Revere Electric Railway; twelve to the Lowell & Dracut Street Railway; seventeen (with five more to follow) to the West End Street Railway, of Boston; three to the Manchester Horse Railroad, Manchester, N. H.; four to the Newport, R. I., Electric Railway; five to Black Rock & Salisbury Beach Railway; six to the Hartford & Wethersfield Horse Railroad Co., Hartford, Ct.; two to the Springfield, Mass., Street Railway; four to the Naumkeag Street Railway, Salem, Mass.; four to Marlboro (Mass.) Street Railway; five to Plymouth & Kingston (Mass.) Street Railway; one to the Gloucester (Mass.) Street Railway; two to the Hoosac Valley Street Railway, North Adams, Mass.; four to the Bangor (Me.) Street Railway, and four to the Lynn (Mass.) Belt Line. In the important factor of space the Newburyport Co. are certainly well equipped. They have some 500 ft. front on the main street of the town, and probably 1,000 ft. of depth, within a short distance of the railroad, and having a large frontage on the water. Their shops were fully described in the June number of the Journal.
Below are photos of cars and companies from the above article
Worcester Rail Way Co. car ready for shipment
Ellis Car Co.
Two examples of Ellis snow plows
1890 12-Bench Closed body built for the Lansing, MI Railway Co.
Briggs Car Co.
In 1890, Briggs Carriage company began to manufacture street car bodies and began to solicit orders from street railways. The first order received by Briggs was for four 8-bench open cars shown in the advertisement below, Nos. 26-29, from the Manchester Street Railway, which had a horse drawn railway. Manchester electrified its railways in 1895.
Once Briggs advertisements started appearing in trade publications, orders began to pour in and in June 1891 the Street Railway Journal reported that the company was very busy and that its factory showed signs of great activity. Among cars shipped in 1891 were one 16-foot closed car and six 8-bench opens to the East Side Street Railway of Brockton; one 18-foot closed car to the Thomson-Houston Electric Company for operation in Whitinsville, Mass, four closed and 11 eight-bench opens to the Allentown & Bethlehem Rapid Transit Company in Pennsylvania; five 16-foot closed and four 8-bench opens to the Brockton Street Railway and one 9-bench open car to the Waterville & Fairfield Railway & Light Company in Maine.
Received in 1891 was an order for the initial rolling stock of the Rockland, Thomaston & Camden Street Railway in Maine's Knox County. This consisted of three 20-foot closed cars and six 10 bench opens which were shipped in 1892. Ten more open cars were shipped to Allentown that year; two open cars each were built for the Cottage City Street Railway of Martha's Vineyard and the Winnipeg Electric Street Railway of Manitoba. Canada and four 10-bench opens went to the Natick (Mass.) Electric Street Railway. Ten 16-foot closed cars were constructed for the Interstate Street Railway of Providence, R. I. and other shipments included five closed cars for the Montreal Street Railway, one 8-bench open to the Marlboro Street Railway, one 18-foot closed car to the Augusta, Hallowell & Gardiner Railroad; two 18-foot closed cars to the Mousam River Railroad of Sanford, Me. a double truck freight car to the Thomson-Houston Electric Company for the Rockland, Thomaston & Camden, two closed cars for the Norwich Street Railway and seven closed cars to the firm of Shaw & Ferguson.
Norwich Street Railway Co, Norwich, CT, 1893 closed car
Among cars shipped in 1893 were a 20-foot closed combination passenger-baggage car and three more closed cars and four opens to the Rockland, Thomaston & Camden; a 20-foot closed car to the Waterville & Fairfield Railway & Light Company; four 10-bench opens to the Concord Street Railway in New Hampshire; six 8-bench open cars to the Aurora (Ill.) Street Railway; six 18-foot closed cars to the New London Street Railway and three 18-foot closed and three 10-bench open cars to the Norwalk (Conn.) Tramway. Also known to have been produced in 1893 were four 10-bench opens for the Plymouth & Kingston Street Railway and a 20-foot closed combination passenger-baggage car for the Haverhill & Amesbury Street Railway.
Crowd gathered at Bank Corner in Calais for the first day of operation
of the Calais Street Railway in 1894
Little information is available about Briggs shipments in 1894 but among them were another 20-foot closed car for the Waterville & Fairfield and four 10 bench open cars for the Calais (Maine) Street Railway. Produced in 1895 were one 20-foot closed car and two 10-bench opens for the Norway & Paris Street Railway in Maine's Oxford County and four 13-bench open, two 14-bench open and sixteen 20-foot closed cars for the Brockton Street Railway. Deliveries in 1896 included two 20-foot closed cars, a 20-foot combination passenger-baggage car, four 10-bench opens and a double truck box freight car to the Somerset Traction Company of Skowhegan; two 10-bench opens to the Biddeford & Saco Railroad and one 20-foot closed and two 10-bench opens to the Brunswick Electric Railroad, all Maine properties, and three 20-foot closed cars to the Chester & Derry Railroad in New Hampshire. Two 20-foot 2-inch closed car bodies. Nos. 50 and 84, went to the Union Street Rail way of New Bedford in 1897.
The combination passenger-baggage cars produced for the Rockland, Thomaston & Camden and Haverhill & Amesbury Street Railways and the Somerset Traction Company were essentially identical except for roof type. The body of each was divided by a bulkhead into a passenger compartment, which had two longitudinal seats, and the baggage section, which had a large sliding door on each side. All three initially had open platforms at the ends.
Waterville, Fairfield & Light Traction Co
The RT&C car was conveyed about 1900 to the Norway & Paris Street Railway, which sold it a year later to the Augusta, Hallowell & Gardiner Railroad. It subsequently became the property of the AH&G's successor, the Augusta, Winthrop & Gardiner Street Railway, and was destroyed by fire in Augusta in 1907. The H&A car is known to have been retired prior to 1909 but the fate of the Somerset Traction car is not recorded.
Developed by Briggs about 1895 was an attractive new design of 20-foot vestibuled closed car. The first versions featured a rectangular monitor roof with a gracefully curved top, convex-concave panel sides, seven drop-sash windows on each side, a single sliding door in each body end bulkhead and vestibules with three drop-sash windows at the ends and either a single-leaf swinging door or a two-leaf folding door on each side. There was a single fixed step at each door. Some of the cars had two longitudinal seats while others had 10 reversible transverse and four short longitudinal seats, the seating capacity for either arrangement being 28. The interiors were heated and lighted by electricity and pictures show that many had incandescent electric headlights permanently mounted on the dashers.
At Badger's Island, Kittery, ME, is this 7-sash Vestibule car for the Portsmouth, Kittery, and York Railway
Companies purchasing cars of this design included the Somerset Traction Company, the Norway & Paris Street Railway, the Waterville & Fairfield Railway & Light Company, the Benton & Fairfield Railway, the Portsmouth, Kittery & York Street Railway, the Lewiston & Auburn Horse Railroad, the Brunswick Electric Railroad and the Lewiston, Brunswick & Bath Street Railway in Maine, the Exeter Street Railway in New Hampshire, the Chester & Derry Railroad, plus the Amesbury & Hampton, the Norton & Taunton and the Plymouth & Sandwich Street Railways in Massachusetts. The LB&B, A&H and P&S cars had steam coach instead of monitor roofs. A 25-foot double truck model was also available and at least one was purchased by the Norton & Taunton.
Try as it might, Briggs was unable to obtain any orders from either the West End Street Railway or the Boston Elevated Railway, possibly because its bid prices were higher than those of other builders. In a move to demonstrate to the Elevated the high quality of its products, two sample 25-foot vestibule closed cars were shipped to Boston about 1899 for tests on the surface lines of the B & R Railroad. Whether they actually were purchased by the them is uncertain, but the two bodies were sold in November 1900 to the Waterville & Fairfield Railway & Light Company for $2,759. They became W & F Nos13 and 14; were revamped for one-man operation by the Waterville, Fairfield & Oakland in Railway in 1922 and were retired nine years later.
Briggs may not have scored in Boston but two of the largest orders ever received by the company came in 1899 from two properties later absorbed by the Brooklyn (N.Y.) Rapid Transit Company. They built for the Brooklyn City Railroad 25 open cars of the 13-bench type, eventually BRT Nos. 675-699, while produced for the Nassau Electric Railroad were fifty 13-bench opens (later BRT 850899) and 25 double truck closed cars with eight windows on each side, which be came BRT 2175-2199. All were of Brooklyn rather than Briggs design and some of the opens lasted until 1934, the closed cars being retired during the 1930-33 period.
The American Street Railways manual of 1900 reported that among other owners of Briggs cars were the Amherst & Sunderland Street Railway in Massachusetts, the Dunkirk & Fredonia Railroad of New York, the Stamford Street Railroad in Connecticut. There may well have been more but, in many cases, the manual listed only quantities of cars owned and gave no further details.
No 1628 Brighton and Bolyston Duplex
During most horse car era street railways generally operated open cars during the summer and closed cars in the fall, winter and spring but after tamed lightning succeeded hay burners as motive power, many companies found it very expensive to own and maintain rolling stock designed only for seasonal use. At an early date streetcar designers began developing cars which could be converted from closed to open (and vice versa) as the weather dictated and in 1896 the fledgling Duplex Car Co. of New York City obtained patents for a type of fully-convertible trolley. The car had curved sliding panels of a type similar to those found on a roll-top desk and each panel, which had a curved plate glass window near its top, could be pushed upward into a roof recess when it was desired to convert the car from closed to open. A single running board was provided on each side. While the earliest cars had open platforms, it was not long before vestibule types were produced and these usually had a single fixed step at each vestibule door. Due to their unique shape, they were commonly referred to as "barrel cars."
Waterville, Fairfield & Traction Co. Duplex Car
Because the Duplex Car Company (which maintained a Boston office for a time) had no plant of its own, it arranged for them to be produced by different builders, including the Jackson & Sharp Company of Wilmington, Del. and the Briggs Carriage Company, both being permitted to use their own roof and vestibule designs. What may have been the first Duplex car ever built was demonstrated in Concord, N.H. in December 1896 and a December 27 newspaper story about the trials was illustrated by a crude drawing which showed that it eight panels on each side, open end platforms, transverse seats and double trucks. The car was purchased about 1898 by the Concord Street Railway, on which it became No. 29, and it was in regular use until the tracks of the Concord system were rebuilt and widened from three-foot to standard gauge in 1903. The car had vestibules in its last years of operation and a picture suggests that these vestibules were of Briggs manufacture.
Duplex cars were available in both single truck and double truck versions. Briggs is known to have produced single truck cars for the West Roxbury & Roslindale Street Railway in Massachusetts and the Exeter, Hampton & Amesbury Street Railway. Both had 21 ft. 8 in. bodies, measured 32 ft I in. long overall and 8 ft. 8 in. wide. Each had nine panels on each side and 16 reversible transverse seats accommodating 32 riders. The Somerset Traction Company and the Templeton (Mass.) Street Railway each owned one double truck car and the Dover, Somersworth & Rochester Street Railway of New Hampshire and the Bellows Falls & Saxtons River Street Railway of Vermont each owned two. Four were acquired by the Waterville & Oakland Street Railway of Maine and while the builder of eight owned by the Honolulu (Hawaii) Rapid Transit & Land Company is uncertain, all had some distinctive Briggs characteristics. Another was purchased by the Nelson (British Columbia) Electric Tramway Company.
1899 Duplex Car, single truck, Exeter, Hampton, & Amesbury Rail Way
There was one major trouble with Duplex cars (at least in New England) and that was the tendency of their side panels to become distorted and stick in wet or damp weather, making it virtually impossible to lower them on a rainy day .or raise them when sunny skies returned. As early as 1911 the DS&R removed the running boards on its two cars and made the sliding panels fast so they could not be moved. Somerset Traction riveted steel plates to the sides of the car to eliminate the convertible feature. Insulation was provided so the car could easily be heated in winter.
The West Roxbury & Roslindale car subsequently became the property of the Old Colony Street Railway and its 1911 successor, the Bay State Street Railway, and was scrapped in 1919. That on the Exeter, Hampton & Amesbury still was on the property when rail service ended in 1926. The Dover, Somersworth & Rochester was motorized in 1926 and the Somerset Traction Company was abandoned two years later. The Templeton Street Railway car became the property of the Northern Massachusetts Street Railway in 1913 and some of its body parts are preserved at the Seashore Trolley Museum. As for the eight Honolulu cars, their monitor roofs were removed about 1920 and about 1926 the sliding panels and windows and the running boards were removed and the sides were enclosed with heavy wire screening. All were scrapped in 1934.
City of Manchester
Produced by Briggs for the Manchester Street Railway in later years were eight 16-foot closed horsecars, Nos. 30 37, in 1891-92; two 10-bench open horsecars, Nos. 38 and 39, in 1893 and seven 10-bench open electric cars, Nos. 76-82, and a luxurious parlor car, the City of Manchester, in 1897.
Delivered to the LB&B at Bath, the car made its first trip from the Shipbuilding City to Lewiston on May 13, 1899 and carried a party of company officials and invited guests. The Lewiston Evening Journal of that day said passengers reported that the car "ran like a boat, without a jar and with a bird-like velocity." Like the City of Manchester, it was available for charter by private parties and one of these was aboard on July 10, 1900 when the Merrymeeting ran away on Main Street, Lewiston, after its brakes failed. As it moved downgrade, its speed steadily increased and when it hit a switch at the north end of the North Bridge across the Androscoggin River, it split the switch and continued broadside across the span to Court Street, Auburn, where it finally halted. There were no injuries to any of the passengers and no collisions with other vehicles and once the brakes had .been repaired at the LB & B's Lewiston car house, the special party continued to its destination.
By the end of the 19th Century, the carriage business was beginning to decline and in 1900 the Briggs Carriage Company started building bodies for the Locomobile Company of Bridgeport, Conn., which had begun producing steam propelled automobiles in 1899. After a strike beginning on January 1, 1903 and lasting three months, Briggs officials formally decided to halt streetcar production (they had no orders anyway) and to concentrate on automobile bodies and horse-drawn wagons.The Atlantic Company
23 Carriage Ave.
Makers of Speed Launches, Raceabouts, Dories, and Motors in all sizesOnly the dates and location were in the Amesbury city directories from 1905-1922. All other information was found by researching digitized boating magazines on the internet. It was first mentioned as being an exhibitor at the 1905 Boston Automobile and Boat Show as found in the 1905 Automobile and Cycle Trade Magazine. They were always a standout at the shows and their sales included the Life Saving Service, the United States Navy, now known as the Coast Guard, and to Light House Tenders. They were recognized worldwide as one of the best in any class.
The Atlantic Co. Factory at 23 Carriage Ave.
The above images are from an extremely rare catalogue that I own.
Atlantic Speed Boat on the Merrimac river by Point Shore
Copied from 1905 Boston Automobile and Motor Boat Show
The Atlantic Company, of Amesbury, Mass., have a very full line of motor boats, built on modernized methods, authentic designs, correct construction. It is probably the largest exhibit and one that includes almost every class of motor and auto boat is that of the Atlantic Company. This concern has twelve boats on exhibition, including the speedy Messenger, designed by L. S. Hewins, U. S. N. The model was made and tested at the Washington navy yard and the test was made in the large tank at that place. It is 25 feet long and can go a 20-mlle test. It has a 20-h.p. motor. Among the other boats exhibited by this company are three types of doriesa clipper dory, skiffs and a 25-foot launch.
Boats shown at the 1905 Boston Automobile and Boat Show
The 1906 Display at the Boston Automobile and Boat Show
Copied from the 1906 Boating Magazine
Probably the largest exhibit was that of the Atlantic Co., of their famous dories which were shown in all sizes and styles at prices within the reach of all.
That the dory type of motor boat is enjoying a steadily rising tide of popularity among yachtsmen and boat users generally is in large measure due to the efforts of the Atlantic Co., of Amesbury, Mass., who have brought this type of boat to a high stage of development and demonstrated that the qualities of staunchness and speed may be successfully combined. Correct design is the basic element of the able boat, and herein the Atlantic Co. has taken extraordinary pains. There is nothing experimental in any of their models. The experimental stage was passed before the model was put upon the market and only after the most thorough "trying-out" in all sorts of waters and all kinds of weather.
By a process of duplication of parts, peculiarly their own, the selected models are accurately reproduced in any desired quantity at a great economy of manufacturing cost. The boats built of these matched and interchangeable parts are necessarily exact duplicates of all other "Atlantic" boats of the same typeperfect mechanically and fast, safe and seaworthy in the highest degree.
"Atlantic" motor dories have a reputation all their own for stability of balance, easy riding in rough weather and heavy seas, great carrying capacity in proportion to size and for being comfortable, practical and desirable for pleasure, business or general use. That they are the "last word" in this type of construction is demonstrated by the high regard in which they are held by the United States Lighthouse and Life Saving Services, both of which use them extensively and endorse them heartily. The accompanying illustration shows two of these boats intended for life-saving service, in course of shipment.
Salisbury, MA Life Saving Station and Crew using Atlantic Boats
Copied from the 1906 Power Boating Magazine
A feature of the "Atlantic" motor dory construction is the manner in which the frames are cut from large pieces and bent to pattern by powerful machinery, a system that insures a lighter and stronger boat than was possible by old methods.
"Atlantic" motor dory skiffs, or "sporting dories" as they have been called, are especially designed for inshore and harbor use and for lakes and rivers. Maximum floor space is obtained by moderate overhangs and economy of room in the stowage of the motor, and gasoline tanks. They are comfortable, speedy, stable, staunch and seaworthy and are admirably adapted to general family use.
"Atlantic" speed launches are of the sensible, well designed and perfectly proportioned type. They are substantially built, with an aim to all-around good performance in rough or smooth water. Thoroughness of construction from models by the best designers and the use of the "Atlantic" and "Merrimac" motors of high power and light weight have given unequaled results in this type of boats of 21 and 23 feet in length. The company's aim is to produce a sensible, high-speed boat.
"Atlantic" marine motors are of the latest, fastest and most powerful designs and together with the "Atlantic" boats of all types are endorsed by such eminent designers as Crowninshield, Fred D. Lawley and others as being the best procurable. The motors are of 2-cycle, 3-port design, light and strong, with large bearings for continuous high running and light reciprocating parts. The submerged exhaust adds to the power of the engine. They are easily foremost as the simplest, handsomest, fastest and most reliable. "Atlantic" boats and motors make it possible to get a boat or motor of the highest class at a moderate cost.
In 1907 , they moved into the vacated Connor's Carriage factory on Carriage Avenue.
Copied from the 1907 Fore'an'Aft Magazine
Notice Point Shore in the background
The Advertisement Text
Atlantic Sea-Going DoriesNoted for correctness of style and high finish. Absolutely unequalled forsafety in rough water. After famous models furnished by us to the United States Light House, Life Saving and Navy Departments
.25 ft. Semi-Speed LaunchBeam -1 ft. 10 in., 12 to 40 H. P., has a speed ranging'from 14 to 20 miles an hour. Made from the most expensive material. Prices from $1,150 to $1,600.
21 and 23 ft. Raceabouts21 ft. equipped with 8 H. P. double cylinder motor, produces the high speed of 13 miles an hour. 12 H. P. 3 cylinder motor, 15 miles an hour. Both of these types whenever raced have proved to be in every instance champions in their class. Prices range from $600 to $1,100.
Atlantic Smooth Planked Clipper Launches23 ft. 7 in. and 5 ft. 7 in. beam. Designed for good speed and weather qualities, combining great stren gth and lightness. Price $650.
16 ft. Motor Dory SkiffsBeam 4 ft. 3 in. Inexpensive small motor boat for fishing purposes and yacht tenders, a good, sensible safe boat for boys. \% H. P. motor and will carry sufficient gasoline for full day's run. Substantially complete, quality guaranteed, price $ 125.
Atlantic Motors from 3 to 40 H. P. High quality metal, ball bearings fastest in the world, combined with lightness of weight. Motors of the highest type, latest and most correct design. We guarantee Atlantic Motors to develop their rated horse power and to be free from defective material and workmanship. In writing state requirements. Catalogues free. Boats can be seen at the Boston show rooms, 59 Haverhill St., Boston, Mass., and at the factory
1910 Advertisement in the Rudder Magazine
Lamps and Electric Parts ManufacturersIn the years that Atwood Mfg. Co. and Gray and Davis Mfg. Co.were in business, they made lamps for over half of the automobiles that were made in country. Both of these companies lamps were equally as good and popular. While doing shows, they Mr. Gray and Mr. Atwood would be seen talking to one another at one of their displays. Their displays were the most written about in automotive magazines of that era.
Letter written by a local Brass Workers' union president
FROM AMESBURY, MASS.Amesbury, Mass., March 6, 1906.
This town is a busy place at present with its car-loads of automobile lamps being shipped most every day to all parts of the country. There are two lamp shops here, also a brass foundry, all working to their full capacity. The Gray & Davis shop and the Atwood Manufacturing Company each employ about one hundred and fifty hands, consisting of thirty or forty buffers, twenty-five metal spinners, one hundred or so solderers and many press operators and helpers, the latter being mostly French Canadians and natives of the town. A few buffers and spinners are needed at the present time. The other industries of Amesbury are carriage shops and large cotton mills, also a thermometer factory and two shirt-making shops that employ a lot of girls who work ten long hours a day as do all the rest of us except "Father" who does ten and a half in the cotton mill. Thanks for the space More news next time.
Atwood Mfg. Co.
1874-1910 Atwood started making carriage lamps in 1871 and in was the first maker of automobile lamps
1899 Coach Lamp
Copied from the 1903 Automobile and Cycle Trade Magazine
The Atwood Mfg. Co. of Amesbury, Mass. made a very large exhibit of automobile lamps, including their famous Stay-Lit Lamp. Their new model for 1903 embodies all the up to date features and its popularity atested to the numbers seen on many new models at the show. They exhibited their very pretty tail lamp of solid brass. It was ball shape and made to lite the rear step of the automobile and at the same time, throw a red light at the sides of the rear. They also had a smaller size for roundabouts made of solid brass. Their lamps included both oil and electric.
Copied from the 1904 Issue of the Horseless Age Magazine
Atwood Mfg. Co.A complete line of Staylit oil ami acetylene lamps, of various sizes, the latter type being entirely new this season, is shown. Changes in the oil lamps consist chiefly in the fluted reflectors in the- No. 1 model, and heavy plate glass covering for all reflectors. The No. 3 has lens with colored section across the top, red in one anel green in the opposite side lamp. The tail lamp is a new production; is fitted with red lens in front, and has white lens of smaller size for throwing the light on steps or numbers carried on the rear of vehicles. A smaller size of tail lamp is also shown, made much on the same principle as the large one. Acetylene headlights are shown in four styles, the No. 6 and No. 5 being of the self-contained patterns, while the No. 4 ar.d No. 7 are made with independent generators. A new headlight, of the independent generator type, is shown, the shape following the lines of a cartridge- or bullet. A full line of brackets, for all styles of lamps, made by the company, is shown.
Cut from 1906 Automobile Magazine
The Atwood Manufacturing Company.
The Atwood Manufacturing Company not only had an imposing array of their lamps, but had the satisfaction of seeing a great number of them in use on machines which were on exhibition. Experience and careful attention to details have enabled the company to produce a class of lamps which are hard to beat. The style includes gas, oil, and tubular tail lamps for runabouts.
1906 Atwood Lamp Company Advertisement
Two 1906 Advertisements
1908 Side Lamps
Copied from the 1909 Edition of the Platers Magazine
Atwood, established in 1872 and the largest maker of carriage lamps in the world. According to this notice published in the 1909 Platers Magazine "The Atwood-Castlc Company has succeeded the Atwood Manufacturing Company, of Amesbury, Mass., manufacturers of automobile lamps. The change is one in name and the business remains the same. W. I. Atwood is president and treasurer, F. E. Castle, vice-president, and I. H. Atwood, secretary and general manager.
1910 Castle Lamp Company Advertisement
In 1910 or 19 11, the Castle Company moved to Selkirk, NY using the same patterns.
Castle Lamp Company moved to Batle Creek, MI in 1911.
Gray and Davis Mfg. Co
1900-1904 Mill St., 1904 99 Rail Road Ave. Gray and Davis Mfg. Co. was formed in the latter part of 1896 By William Gray, a lamp salesman, and Albert Davis, a carriage trimmer. 1900 Advertisement cut from the 1900 issue of the Horseless Age Magazine
Copied from the 1903 Horseless Age Magazine
Gray & Davis, of Amesbury, Mass., exhibited a complete line of their fine lamps. Mr. Gray, who was personally in charge of the exhibit, cited as a fact illustrating the high-grade character of their product, that all the rigs in the show equipped with their lamps listed over $2000. One night during the show, two or three of their finest lamps were stolen, which is another indication that their high grade is appreciated.1903 French Headlight Style, 12 1/2" deep, 13* high, and 7 1/2 wide
Two of these were stolen at his 1903 Boston Autmobile Show
Two 1904 advertisements show that is factory was on Mill Street. He moved to Rail Road Ave. in 1905
Copied from the 1909 Issue of the Horseless age Magazine
Gray & Davis, Amesbury, Mass., will exhibit their full lineof lamps, including a newtype of gas lamp. This is a close coupled lamp, and will be shown in two series of styles, one with large flaring flange or opening in front to allow the light to spread; the other of searchlight form, with a small flaring flange. Both styles are equipped with a front silver reflector put in for looks and reflecting powers. There will also be seen combination gas and electric lamps. Thef ocus mirror claimed to be of great light jiving qualities. There is a gas chamber at the base of the burner to prevent flickering of the flame, and does away with the need for a rubber bulb on the pipe line. All parts of the lamp are said to be easily replaceable.
John Kettering, an engineer for Detroit Electric Co, known as Delco, devised the electric starter for Cadillac Motors in 1911. General Motors bought the Delco Company and hired Kettering as its chief engineer. By doing this only General Motors would have the electric starters in their cars. But Gray and Davis, who had been working on their system since 1910, came out with their electric starter shortly thereafter. Any car company could by their starter that was better than General Motors. Consequently, theirs were the biggest sellers.
The article, photo, and diagrams were cut from the 1912 Electrical Magazine
Members of Local 47, Ameshury, Mass., working in the Gray & Davis lamp shop of Amesbury, Mass., have just secured an increase in wages from 90 cents to $1 per hour for both day and piece workers. This local has increased its rate since June 1, 1919, from 67 1/2 cents per hour to $1 per hour.Gray and Davis Co. moved to Cambridge, MA in 1926.
Hoyt Peanuts, Peanut Butter, and Candies
1902-1917, 2 Greenwood St., 1917, 11 Oakland Street
Frank Hoyt with His Buffalo Brand Delivery Truck
Frank M. Hoyt ground his first bag of peanuts into peanut butter in 1902 in a hand mill, During his visit to the World's Fair in Buffalo NY, he decided to name his brand "Buffalo" His first year's sale was a thousand dollars. He moved into the wholesale business and branched out into several varieties of peanuts and candy. By 1923, he was selling his brand of products throughout North Amnerica and eight other foreign countries. His containers are highly sought after and command premium prices.
Hoyt Brands of peanuts and peanut butter were packaged under three different trade names, Buffalo, Pickaninny, and Powow. Buffalo with the Buffalo logo was the earliest and most common. It was packaged in a large variety of containers in one, two, five, and ten pound containers. Pickaninny with a black child logo was second and scarce. It was packaged in one and ten pound containers. The Powow brand had an Indian chief for its logo and was packaged in ten pound containers. These containers are very rare and expensive on today's market.
His Butta-Kiss candy was one of the most popular brands in the country and they could be seen sitting on grocery and candy stores counters in a five and ten pound cardboard freight cars. These were there for convenience of small quantities. A large Buta-Kiss tin container was always present for customers who wanted to purchase a larger amount to take home.
1n 1925, the Amesbury Rotary Club was chartered with Frank M. Hoyt as a member and he became its president in 1928.
These news items were published in the 1916 Issue of Simmon's Spice Mill Magazine
F. M. Hoyt Co., Amesbury, Mass., report an increased demand for their "Buffalo" brand peanut butter, and additions have been made to their plant to give them a greater output. The new equipment includes a Burns No. 6 roaster, with special cylinder for shelled peanuts
The item in this column of the May number, regarding F. M. Hoyt & Co., Amesbury, Mass.. was not entirely correct. The business of this concern, who manufacture the "Buffalo" brand of peanut butter and fancy salted nuts, has so outgrown its present quarters that they are forced to get more room. Mr. Hoyt decided to buy a plant which could be arranged to suit his conveniences and recently purchased of the Shields Carriage Co. their three story brick manufacturing building and the land which extends from Carriage Ave. through to the B. & M. railroad. It is an ideal location for Mr. Hoyt's business, being so near the railroad that it will be possible to have an elevator at the rear of the building down to the tracks of the B. & M. so that the large amount of freight of the firm can be handled without any teaming. It is Mr. Hoyt's intention to do a large amount of work in alterations and equipment of the new plant for the manufacture of the "Buffalo" brand products, for which it will be exclusively used. The new plant will give the firm about four times as much floor space as at present, and where the firm now employ 40 girls, they expect to give employment to 100. H. S. Lamb, formerly of the Keystone Telephone system of Philadelphia, has entered the employ of Mr. Hoyt and will be the general manager of the plant. It will probably be several months before the business will be moved to the new plant.
Pettingell Machine CO.
Pettingell Machine Company was one of the oldest manufacturers in AmesburyCopied from Coachbuilt
By 1873, Pettingell had established his own machine shop and business must have been good as he married S. Ellen Bartlett, the 20-year-old daughter of W.H. and Louise Bartlett on December 16, 1874.
Pettingell licensed wheel-making equipment from local carriage-makers such as Joseph Richardson Locke of Locke & Jewell (manufacturers of the Warner patent wheel) in addition to devising his own time saving appliances. Pettingell was soon advertising the Locke-based C.F. Pettingell rim and felloe rounding machine.
Wheel Rounding Machine Showing Number and Date
These are some of his patented machines: rim planing machine, hub mortising-machine, with cutter or cones, polishing-machine for polishing spokes, rim-rounder, rim boring-machine, spoke tenoning-machine, lathes, with or without centering-machine, spoke smutting-machine, or re-tenoner, spoke facing-machine, surface-planer for rims, polishing-machine for carriage-woodwork, and many more.
Locke and Jewell and Petingell Machine Co. were located adjacent to each other on Mechanics Row near Pattens Pond. In 1887, a fire heavily damaged both firms and had to be rebuilt. When the devasting fire hit Carriage Hill and destroyed a large portion of the carriage factories, Locke and Pettingell were able to keep making products. Another fire in 1891 also did heavy dame to both firms.
By 1900, Pettingell had invented several more machines that included the tenoners, tilting arbor table saws, friction cutters, and rolling formers for sheet metal fabrication, and rim and fellow rounding machines.
In 1903, the carriage trade was hard hit by a labor strike that lasted for three months. Almost all of the smaller shops went out of business and the larger shops divided their business between carriages and automobile body building. At the beginning of the automobile manufacturing, almost all bodies were made of wood. but by 1905, sheet metal was being used more and more. There was one drawback for this and it was the amount of time and lack of skilled metal workers to do the jobs. Every metal part of the body had to be hand hammered. Pettingell recognized the problem, and he began to invent a machine to do the job. In 1906, The Pettingell Powered Hand Hammer was made, tested in the Amesbury shops, and put on the market. Where it took a full day to make a metal body part, now one could be made in less than an hour.
This was the beginning of the composite automobile body, meaning the frame was made of wood and sheet metal was attached to the wood. These bodies lasted until Fisher Body quit this practice in 1936.
The automatic hammers were so popular that almost every large automobile garage or body maker was using them. Fisher Body had over 500 of them. Pettingell did not rest on its laurels. They invented over fifteen other machines used not only in body work but in all wood working shops.
1908 Pettingell Advertisement
THE CARRIAGE MONTHLY
A review of the growth of the metal hody business for automobiles takes one to Amesbury, Mass., where the work was first done in a small way by hand, then the increased demand called for machinery and change in method of manufacturing from hand work to machinery designed and built for this special line of work to supply the demands for aluminum and sheet steel bodies. Considerable credit for encouraging, assisting and developing the metal body business should be given to the Pcttingell Machine Co., Amesbury, Mass., the home of the industry, as the management has from the beginning persistently worked and kept experts in touch with workmen in the various shops to develop and build special machinery for the various parts of the work, and encouraged and advised the various body manufacturers to add metal body machinery to their line and be prepared for their share of the enormous business which would surely develop.
They have found the cost of extra or special machines needed to enable manufacturers to make both wood and metal bodies is small compared with the large field for the work. They have built many special machines for various factories and builders and also developed a standard line of machines for metal body work that are now recognized and indorsed the world over and are in use in all the principal factories in America and have also shipped to England, Germany, Australia, Canada and Italy, and are rapidly being installed by many other factories as they see the trend of business towards metal bodies.
The machine company is
continually adding to their standard line of machinery any machines or equipment which
prove practical and useful after thoroughly trying out on actual work. The old time
carriage and body factories of Amesbury, which formerly set the style and standard for
quality and work for the world, are all rushed on orders for metal bodies for high-grade
automobiles, using Pettingell machinery which has enabled them to keep up their reputation
of making the best bodies in the world. Manufacturers in other cities alive to the
progress of the Amesbury manufacturers and the possibilities of their metal body work have
ordered and installed large numbers of the Pettingell machines in their factories. In
Detroit, which is rapidly forging to the front as the largest automobile center of the
world, the manufacturers have discarded many of their old line machines and installed
large numbers of the various Pettingell machines. In one factory alone (Fisher Body Co.)
they have 17 Pettingell patented automatic hammers, large and small, for various kinds of
work, and full equipment of beading machines, metal cutting machines, rolling machines and
punches, also five Pettingell patent saw lenoners as well as bevel and miter saws,
irregular dressers, etc., and can find no other machines better than the Pettingell line
for quality and quantity of work.
The Pettingell Machine Co., Amesbury, Mass., manufacturers of carriage and automobile machinery, received a personal visit from Paul Kellner, of Kellner & Sons, Paris, France, in January. The object of Mr. Kellner's call was to purchase some of the Pettingell metal body machinery, which will be sent to the factory in Paris, the finest and largest in France. Mr. Kellner stated that orders for additional machinery would follow as soon as he returned to his home city. The Pettingell company has recently shipped machines to Austria; Turin, Italy, and London, Eng., and are preparing another shipment for Austria. They have just made arrangements with the A. R. Williams Machinery Co., Canada, with branch houses in St. John, Montreal, Toronto, Winnepeg and Vancouver, to act as special agents in the Dominion. Already a number of the largest manufacturers in Canada are using the Pettingell machinery in their factories.
1913 Pettingell Machinery Advertisement
1913 Pettingell Advertisement
Copied from the 1913 Carriage Monthly Magazine
New Department of the Pettingell Machine Co.
In this number of The Carriage Monthly the Pettingell Machine Co., Amesbury, Mass., are notifying the automobile body manufacturers that they will add to their plant a department in which they will do high-grade metal body work, also work on metal parts. Heretofore they have confined themselves to the manufacture of machinery for wood and metal bodies, but the increasing demand for metal working machines has exhausted the supply of expert men, and they are continually receiving requests from various manufacturers for competent operators to work the machines.
In order to help out the body manufacturers, the Pettingell Machine Co. have secured the services of Gottlieb Bela, one of the best workmen, if not the best, in this country, and they will take such work as the "various manufacturers cannot do in their own plants and will guarantee to do all such work in a first-class manner. They do not intend to handle the cheaper class of work, but will confine themselves strictly to high-grade production. They will also take workmen from the different factories using their machinery and teach them how to run the machines and thus enable the manufacturers, in the future, to do all classes of work in their own shops. This is a chance of a life time for young men who wish to learn this business, and at the same time it enables body builders to send the most difficult parts of the work where they are sure it will be done in a satisfactory manner. From manufacturers doing high-class (duplicate) mill work the Pettingell Machine Co. would require one form or sample sent them, and they will complete and return as many parts as wanted, all existence of the motor-driven vehicle." perfectly done.
Another advertisement was placed laterin the 1913 Carriage Monthly Magazine.
March, 1914. THE CARRIAGE MONTHLY
The making of dies or forms to press out the metal stock for a sample job is too expensive a process, unless a quantity order is certain to follow, and this you cannot be sure of until after the sample has been submitted. Whether it is the entire metal work or only some part that is giving your workmen trouble, the Pettingell Machine Co., through its metal body department, is prepared to help you. This company manufactures metal automobile body machinery used in leading factories here and abroad, and the Pettingell experts have perfected themselves in the use of these machines, turning out the highest possible grade of work."
The company has recently opened a body shop, in which their experts are prepared to assist all manufacturers in any work that is causing trouble. They also get out your sample work and do any of your special jobs in metal body construction that require special facilities and unusual skill. Particulars will be mailed to manufacturers of vehicle bodies upon request to The Pettingell Machine Co., Amesbury, Mass.
Pettingell had now decided to make complete bodies for any interested company. A separate department was formed as the metal body department.
This body work was one of the finest examples of an automobile body yet made. It shows the craftman's skill employed by the Pettingell company and the glass work manufactured by the Amesbury Bent Glass Company.
In 1913, Pettingell Machine Co. moved its metal body department to 79 Elm Street which is on the corner of Clark and Elm Streets.Walker-Wells had recently moved their compnay to the corner of Chestnut and Oakland Streets.Its first contract wwas with Winton Automobile Co., Cleveland. OH, and Franklin Auitomobile Co., Syracuse, NY, with Biddle and Smart doing the decorating.
In 1915, Pettingell Machine Co. was reorganized and Charles Pettingell, son of the founder, went to work with Walker-Wells. The firm was sold to Gottlieb Bela, foreman of the metal body making department, with this department becoming the Bela Body Company.
With the build up towards the preparation of a war, other companies builders of airplanes and trucks began to buy Pettingell's machines. By 1915, Pettingell Machine Co. had too many contracts to fulfill. so the he moved the body company to Framingham, MA for assembling only. The body parts were still being made in Amesbury. Within a short time, he had body orders from some of the most prestigeous car manufacturers in the country.
Advwertisements copied from the 1917 Automobile Industry Magazine
The above adertisements are for machiinery. Within a short period of time, orders were received from the Canadian and British governmnets
This advertisement shows that the factory in Framingham was for
assembling bodies only
When the Untited States entered in to World War One, all automobile companies were to concentrate on war machinery. Thus, Bela closed down his body departments and began only to make machinery for the war effort. In 1918, Bela sold his body making company to Henry Long, Framingham, MA, who had made a fortune by selling knapsacks to the government.
In 1926, The Pettingell Machine CO was sold to four Hungarian businessmen who moved it to Lawrence. When the United States entered into World War Two in December of 1941, President Roosevelt gave an order that any business owned by foreigners of a government that was ties to Germany would be consificated and sold. The Pettingell Machine Company was sold to a group of businessmen from Laconia, NH and moved there. It was in business until 1956.
Merrimac Hat Factory
Merrimac Hat Factory, 1890s Copied from the History of Essex County, compiled by D. Hamilton Hurd, 1888 Of the first seventeen who became sole proprietors of the town in 1654, not one, so far as can be ascertained, was a hatter. The introduction of this branch was by Deacon Moses Chase, of Newbury, a descendant of Aquila Chase. The exact time when he commenced the business cannot be determined, but in 1707 he petitioned the town for a small piece of land on the Ferry road, next to Powow River, to build a hatter's shop on. The request was granted, he receiving a lot thirty feet square.
There is a tradition that his first shop stood near the small brook in the rear of the houses on the west side of the street, ,and the fact that he was here and taxed four years before, asking for the lot beside the Powow, would seem to confirm the tradition. In 1703 he paid only a poll-tax, but the next year he was rated for some property, which may have been a shop where he was working.
How long the business was continued at the Ferry by Deacon Chase and his son Bailey is not known, but the shop was occupied for hatting many years. The late Daniel Long manufactured hats here for some time. Nearly three-fourths of a century ago the business was started at the Mills, on Main Street, in the building since converted into a dwellinghouse, owned and occupied by the late Daniel Morrill.
About 1838 Isaac Martin, a native of the Ferry, commenced hatting near Powow River bridge, in the basement of the house now owned by Timothy Bagley. Associated with him was the late Albert Gale. Subsequently they removed to the old building on the wharf, where the business was continued till about 1853. In the mean time the late Abner L. Bailey had become connected with the business and by his energy and perseverance became very successful. After continuing the business some length of time, mostly at Salisbury Point, under the title of "Merrimac Hat Company," a new company was formed, called the " Amesbury Hat Company," and the town landing (near Powow River bridge) purchased, on which a large factory was built. Before going into operation this company was consolidated with the Merrimac Hat Company," of which Mr. Bailey was agent and a large owner.
In 1804 Alfred Bailey organized the " Horton Hat Company," which commenced operations near the present large mill on Merrimac Street. This company sold out to the Merrimac Company July 18, 1806, when the latter company assumed the entire business.
The company now employ one hundred and sixty-nine hands; one hundred and eighteen males and fifty-one females. The number of hats manufactured in 1886 was forty-one thousand four hundred and ninety-eight dozen, valued at two hundred and eighty-three thousand dollars. For the last thirteen years the present efficient agent, R. B. Hawley, Esq., has had charge of the business.
Rear view of the factory
Hat Factory view from Merrimac Street
In 1878, Merrimac Hat Factory was given permission to build a new factory on the Merrimac River at Bailey's stream.
The company grew to be the largest hat manufacturers in the world with six factories in the United States and one in Canada. The sales diminished quickly during the 1940s when felt hats became out of fashion and it closed down in 1952.
The industries that have been shnown here was an intregal part of Amesbury's industrial history and should never be forgotten.